Multi Drug Resistant
Superbugs in the News
Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, C. difficile, Vancomycin Resistant
Antibiotic Resistance       Necrotizing fasciitis
Superbug kills dozens in hospitals across country
A deadly bacterium known as Klebsiella pneumoniae is
believed to have killed some 120-200 patients in
hospitals across the country.
"Between 400 to 500 people have been infected by the
bug, and 30 to 40 percent of them have already died.
Health Minister Yacov Ben Yizri on Wednesday rejected
accusations that his ministry had underestimated the
scope of the outbreak,
saying the case was kept a
secret to prevent mass panic

Klebsiella pneumoniae update
March15, 2007
3. Emergency rooms in Israeli hospitals, over the past
few days, have been nearly empty. People needing
treatment are avoiding medical centers due to fear of
the deadly bacteria, klebsiella pneumoniae, that is
sweeping through Israeli hospitals. The bacterium has
infected more than 500 people and taken the lives of
nearly a third of those who have become ill. Presently
intensive care units are packed with patients who have
been infected and more than 3000 beds are urgently
needed. Strict quarantine and sanitation measures are
being taken in the nation’s hospitals as the infection is
resistant to antibiotics. The Health Ministry met recently
with Prime Minister Ehud Olmert to request millions of
dollars of emergency funds to control the outbreak and
invest in new hospitals. The public has reacted to the
news reports by avoiding hospitals altogether. The
implications become even more menacing as threats of
war increase daily. (Sources: INN/IHC)

Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae
Outbreak in an Israeli Hospital
Dr. Hussein told Medscape, "At the start of 2006, we
discovered that we were at the beginning of an outbreak
of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae," and
the outbreak has now spread to "all of the hospitals in
Israel now," he said.
Better hygiene only way to ward off superbugs
Friday, July 27, 2007

The closure of Belfast City Hospital's intensive care unit
has again heightened concern over superbugs . Health
correspondent Claire Regan looks at the implications of
the little known bug behind the closure

Need for new drugs to tackle 'Superbugs'
Antibacterials used to treat hospital-acquired infections,
mostly targeting gram-positive organisms such as
MRSA, generate revenues of approximately $1.5 billion
annually in the US alone. Although MRSA has grabbed
the headlines, more worrying is the emergence of MDR
gram-negative organisms, resistant to almost all
currently available drugs - highlighting a crucial unmet
need in the market.
Worryingly, some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
and Acinetobacter baumannii have become resistant to
all currently available antimicrobials. Since
gram-negative organisms exhibit intrinsic resistance to
several antibiotics, additionally acquired resistances
leave very few options for treatment.

Superbugs Driving Blockbusters
The community market is pretty much exhausted for big
pharma, so companies are focusing on the hospital
market because they can achieve higher prices there,"
One reason pharmaceutical companies have not been
interested in this area, Eash said, is that the affected
patient population is relatively small. However, it could be
a lucrative opportunity.
"Drugs that enter that space would be able to
command very high price premiums,"
US Scientists discover new, potentially
deadly bacteria
Named Bartonella rochalimae, the new species is a
close relative of a microbe that sickened thousands of
soldiers during the First World War with what became
known as trench fever, spread through body lice.

Antibiotic resistant bugs found in the mouth
6 months after antibiotic use: study

Last Updated: Friday, February 9, 2007 | 10:03 AM ET
The Canadian Press

Taking a single course of a certain type of antibiotic gives
rise to high levels of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the
mouth, an effect that lasts for at least half a year, a new
study has found.

The extraordinary persistence of the effect startled the
scientists who discovered it and others in the field as
well, and underscores the need for judicious use of
these precious drugs, experts said.

— Senior author Dr. Herman GoossensSenior author Dr.
Herman Goossens said he and his co-authors assumed
that if they followed the subjects in their study for six
months they would see the rates of resistant bacteria in
their mouths return to normal levels. But that didn't

"We were pretty staggered by these data," said
Goossens, a microbiologist at the University of
Antwerp, in Belgium. "We never expected this."

Goossens said the findings suggest that even after a
single — and short — course of antibiotics, a person
could spread resistant strains of bacteria to close
contacts within a household or a hospital for months.

The findings, reported Thursday in the journal The
Lancet, are a sharp reminder of the power of antibiotics,
suggested Eric Brown, a biochemist at McMaster
University in Hamilton.
So a quick course of antibiotics and a half a year later,
you're still carrying resistant organisms. That's a little bit
terrifying," said Brown, whose laboratory is working on
alternative ways to kill bacteria, because of the rising
problem of antibiotic resistance.

Treatment decisions
It also suggests doctors treating patients for bacterial
infections should carefully consider which antibiotics they
prescribe if those patients have taken antibiotics within
the past year — the period Goossens thinks it might take
for resistance levels to subside to normal after antibiotic

"If you're a doc who's about to treat a patient who has
been treated before, it should have an impact on the
decisions you make about what to give that patient,"
Brown said.

The study, which was partially funded by drug maker
Abbott Laboratories, is the first to definitively show that
antibiotic use is the major factor in the emergence of
antibiotic resistance, Goossens said.

It seems a bit like proving the known.

Plenty of research has shown that as antibiotic use rises
in a population, the rate of antibiotic-resistant infections
rises as well. Based on those findings, infection control
experts have been campaigning for years to get doctors
to cut back on antibiotic use out of a fear that resistance
is threatening the continued efficacy of these important

But because those studies looked across populations,
researchers couldn't rule out other factors that might
have been involved and therefore could only draw a link
between antibiotics and antibiotic resistance.

Resistance in the mouth
Proving antibiotic use causes antibiotic resistance
requires studying individuals, and that's what Goossens
and his colleagues did.

A group of 224 healthy volunteers were randomly
selected to receive either azithromycin or clarithromycin
— both drugs from the macrolides class of antibiotics —
or a fake treatment. Neither the volunteers nor the
researchers knew who received which.

The back of the mouth of each participant was swabbed
at the start of the study and then at regular intervals after
the subject had completed the course of antibiotics. The
swabs were tested to determine whether the streptococci
in the mouth were susceptible or resistant to the

Surprisingly, the researchers found that roughly 28 per
cent of the streptococci in the mouths of all subjects were
resistant from the start. But whereas that level didn't
change for participants who received a placebo, the
proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the mouths of
treated participants spiked to about 90 per cent shortly
after treatment.

At six weeks out, the resistant bugs still made up about
60 per cent of streptococci and at six months, 50 per cent.

Should people in this position become infected with
streptococci, which cause respiratory and other ailments,
those infections might not respond to antibiotics.
Furthermore it's known that bacteria can pass along
resistance to other types of bacteria, again making
affected people more vulnerable to resistant infections.

"It … should serve as a wake-up call for individual
prescribing physicians, nurse practitioners, midwives,
dentists and others that inappropriate use of
antibiotics does have consequences," said Dr. John
Conly, former chair of the Canadian Committee on
Antibiotic Resistance and head of the department of
medicine at Foothills Medical Centre in Calgary.

© The Canadian Press, 2007
Superbugs Just Out There on the Streets
Sometime in January, 2006, Ms. Weil contracted
drug-resistant staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium
that's a major cause of hospital-acquired infections.
Except she hadn't been hospitalized.

Marine Killed by Rare Superbug
Eighteen-year-old Richard Campbell-Smith
contracted the rare Panton Valentine Leukocidin
(PVL), which has been linked to MRSA, last October.
Preferred First-Line Treatment for C difficile
Diarrhea Has Worse Outcome, Higher Costs
April 5, 2007 (Munich, Germany) — A database
comparison of demographics, risk factors, and
hospital outcomes for patients with Clostridium
difficile–associated diarrhea (CDAD) shows that the
preferred first-line use of metronidazole (MET) is
associated with worse discharge outcomes and
higher total costs than the alternative use of
vancomycin (VANC).
23 Babies Die in a SAT Hospital This Month
`Deaths caused by hospital-acquired infection'

There were 35 deaths at the unit in April. But 23 deaths
were microbiologically confirmed as due to infections
caused by the presence of multi-drug resistant (MDR)
strains of bacteria. There could be more cases of
infection or deaths as last week's blood-culture results
were awaited.

Hospital sources said on Tuesday that the organisms
that were isolated in the blood-sample cultures of
babies — MDR Klebsiella, Methicillin- Resistant
Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), Acinetobacter and
Enterococci — could hardly come from the community
and that these were cases of hospital infections.

Over-crowded and unhygienic conditions in the labour
rooms, gynaecology wards and lack of cleanliness
inside the neonatal intensive care units could be
responsible for the outbreak.
Bad Bugs
Drug-resistant microbes are evolving into a public
health problem too widespread to ignore.

The War — and the War on Disease
Wounded soldiers returning from tours of duty in Iraq
and Afghanistan are importing stronger strains of
certain bacteria — pathogens that can survive
treatments that traditionally have been effective at
eradicating them. Some health officials are calling it
the next drug-resistant infection epidemic.
Parental Smoking Increases Children's Infections,
Antibiotic Use

by Bryant Furlow

April 24, 2007—Over-prescription of antibiotics is
creating drug-resistant pathogens around the world,
so the race is on to identify ways to reduce antibiotic
use. Now, Swiss researchers investigating the
of antibiotic use in children have identified one
important culprit: parental smoking.

The team found that children whose parents smoke
are up to 24 percent more likely to have been
prescribed antibiotics.
Wastewater treatment plants and Antibiotic Resistance

Hospitals Ditching Patients to Nursing Homes
Hospitals all across the US are ditching infected patients to nursing homes
This enables allows to keep from having to report Outbreaks at their facility and from having people die
on their watch from drug resistant infections that they most likely gave the patients in the first place.
!!!!!Don't them ditch your loved ones to the nursing home to die!!!!!

Federal agencies urged to check for MRSA in meat

The CDC's Deadly Mistake
Sometimes connecting the dots reveals a grim picture. Several new reports about hospital-acquired
infections (HAIs) show that the danger is increasing rapidly, and that the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) isn’t leveling with the public about it.

The Incorrigable Bugs
With current antibiotics losing (or having already lost) their effectiveness against common and serious
pathogens, and problems like lack of awareness and over the counter availability of antibiotics looming over our
heads, alarm bells have started shrieking. Aashruti Kak discusses how this disturbing development is resisting
the industry's resolve to treat and eradicate the 'superbugs'

How Many Superbugs does it take?
Nick Narron went into Jewish Hospital in Louisville Kentucky in June for heart surgery, which was successful.
But Nick didn't get to go home and enjoy his new lease on life
Instead he spent the next two months fighting not one, not two, but three hospital acquired drug resistant
                Nick had tested positive for MRSA, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pnuemonia.

Why is Nick dead?
Another patient in the same hospital at the same time, a transplant patient that never got as far as the transplant
due to getting hospital acquired Acinetobacter baumannii and Vancomycin resistant enterococcus , asked his
family to please just let him die.  

           The Superbug problem has grown beyond the singular that is deadly enough.  Our
military and civilian hospitals are giving patients two and three and maybe more superbugs
at the same time.
Treating one Superbug with toxic antibiotics only enables another superbug.

Necrotizing fasciitis
Necrotizing fasciitis or fasciitis necroticans, commonly known as "flesh-eating bacteria", is a rare infection of the
deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues, easily spreading across the fascial plane within the
subcutaneous tissue. Many types of bacteria can cause necrotizing fasciitis (eg. Group A streptococcus, Vibrio
vulnificus, Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis), of which Group A streptococcus is the most common
Emerge Among
Urban Poor
This kid is losing his leg
to infection, not an ATV

Iraq War Veteran Still
Battling a stubborn foe

What is Vancomycin
Resistant Enterococcus ?

MRSA Survey
Survey of patient and
family experience with

Rapid Increase of
Genetically Diverse
Staphylococcus Aureus,
Copenhagen, Denmark
1 in 10 Patients will get Disease in EU Hospitals
One in 10 patients entering a European hospital can
expect to catch an infection there and drug-resistant
microbes caught through healthcare are a rapidly
growing threat, EU health officials said on Thursday.

The European Centre for Disease Prevention and
Control (ECDC) said in a report that every year some 3
million people in European Union countries catch a
disease associated with healthcare and that around
50,000 die as a result.
We're talking about a flesh eating bacteria called Vibrio.
It's the same dangerous bacteria that prompted health
warnings about eating Gulf Coast oysters.
Coxiella burnetii.

Still another Lab accident at the same bioweapons

It is also being seen in US soldiers in Iraq, where
some 30 cases have been diagnosed.
Bacterial infection claims
life of soldier in Germany

January 16, 2002

Pinto said doctors concluded that Vasquez
died from epiglotitis hemorrhagic pneumonia
due to bacterial infection. The type of bacteria
that caused the death and the manner in
which Vasquez came in contact with the
bacteria remain unknown. She said additional
tests are being run in an effort to get those

Pinto gave the following account of her son’s
final hours. She said that on Dec. 23 he
participated in regular activities, including
taking care of his newborn son. At about 4:30
p.m., she said, he complained of a sore throat.

By 10:30 p.m. he was telling family members
that he could not breathe. He was taken to a
hospital by 11 p.m. where he was attended to
by doctors, but died at 12:30 a.m. Dec. 24,
according to Pinto.

Dr. Sadeq A. Razvi, an ear, nose and throat
specialist with offices in Freehold Township,
explained that epiglotitis is an infection of the
epiglottis, a structure at the top of the
windpipe. Bacteria such as airborne bacteria
can cause epiglotitis, and the disease can be
fast moving and fatal if not treated, Razvi
explained. A sore throat and trouble breathing
due to swelling of the epiglottis could be
symptoms of epiglotitis, he said. Razvi said he
sees about six cases of epiglotitis a year.
Armed with copper, researchers attacking hospital

Tuesday, August 28, 2007
With efforts underway in New Jersey to reduce the
number of hospital-acquired infections, some experts
are suggesting a makeover of ordinary fixtures --
everything from soap dispensers to the light switches in
patient rooms -- may provide part of the solution.

Studies being funded by the U.S. Department of
Defense are testing the ability of copper-based metals
to kill disease-causing microorganisms, thereby
decreasing the kind of cross-contamination that can
end up transmitting harmful infections to patients.
Honey is a remedy for MRSA

HONEY and seaweed is being used by a hospital to stop
the MRSA bug.

Doctors clean wounds with the honey and then put on a
dressing containing a seaweed extract.

The sterile honey seals the injury and stops bugs entering
it, while the seaweed draws and absorbs the harmful

Doctors at the James Cook University Hospital in
Middlesbrough began treating patients after discovering
Aborigines use the method.
Staph Germ undermines body's defenses
WASHINGTON (AP) — The aggressive antibiotic-
resistant staph infection responsible for thousands of
recent illnesses undermines the body's defenses by
causing germ-fighting cells to explode, researchers
reported Sunday. Experts say the findings may help
lead to better treatments.

An estimated 90,000 people in the United States fall ill
each year from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
aureus, or MRSA. It is not clear how many die from the
infection; one estimate put it at more than 18,000,
which would be slightly higher than U.S. deaths from

The infection long has been associated with health
care facilities, where it attacks people with reduced
immune systems. But many recent cases involve an
aggressive strain, community-associated MRSA, or CA-
MRSA. It can cause severe infections and even death
in otherwise healthy people outside of health care

The CA-MRSA strain secretes a kind of peptide — a
compound formed by amino acids — that causes
immune cells called neutrophils to burst, eliminating a
main defense against infection, according to
Meet the hospital staph
MDR A. baumannii may often
contaminate protective equipment of
health care workers
Almost 40% of protective gowns and gloves worn by
health care workers who were exposed to patients
with multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
became contaminated during contact, according to
findings presented at the 2009 meeting of the
Society of Healthcare Epidemiologists of America,
held in San Diego.

Daniel Morgan, MD, of the University of Maryland
Medical Center in Baltimore, presented the results.
“A prior study using similar methods demonstrated
that health care workers were contaminated by
MRSA at a rate of about 18.5%, which is about half
of the rate we observed for A. baumannii,” he said.
“In our own study, we found that MDR A. baumannii
was about four times as likely as Pseudomonas
aeruginosa to contaminate health care workers.”

The study involved 202 health care workers who
entered the rooms of patients with MDR A.
baumannii and/or P. aeruginosa. A 39.5% (95% CI;
32.1-47.4%) transfer rate to the gloves and/or
gown of health care workers occurred, and a 4.2%
(95% CI; 1.7-8.5%) transfer rate to the hands of the
workers after the removal of gloves and before
hand washing occurred.

The rates for health care workers who had contact
with P. aeruginosa patients were 8.3% (95% CI; 4.2-
14.3%) for transfer to gloves or gowns and 0.8%
(95% CI; 0.02-4.12%) for transfer to hands before

“We also observed that contact with wounds, time
of exposure and working with an endotracheal tube
were independent risk factors for increased A.
baumannii contamination,” Morgan said